Sunday, May 17, 2020
A study done by the National Training Laboratory Institute (1999) found that Ã¢â¬Å"on average, students retain five percent of what they hear, ten percent of what they read, thirty percent of what they see during demonstrations, and seventy-five percent of what they practice doingÃ¢â¬ (para. 2). Service-learning remains a program that integrates community service, reflection, and practice to improve the students learning experience, teach civic responsibility, and strengthen community and school relations. This learning strategy aids students in learning numerous skills, traits, and lessons that classroom instruction alone cannot teach. It makes learning relevant and enjoyable for the students by taking them out in the community and lettingÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Children often fall into wrong or harmful circumstances as they search to gain a sense of belonging to something greater, for instance, a community. Christine Morris (1992) backs this statement when she said that all children need the sense of belonging to something bigger than themselves. If children have additional opportunities to explore different tasks and problems in their community, they would be less likely to find themselves in harmful situations. Children who stand apart from the community lack the chances to learn valuable lessons. Examples of the valuable lessons they would learn would be being responsible for their actions or lack thereof, community awareness and observation, and a social understanding of how a community is supposed to work. As the saying goes, Ã¢â¬Å"It takes a village to raise a child,Ã¢â¬ in this sense the village is the childÃ¢â¬â¢s community. In order for the child to gain social awareness, responsibility, and a sense of community, they need to be involved in community affairs. Service-learning will assist children in becoming involved in the community and aid them in learning valuable lessons that they cannot learn from classroom teaching. Critics believe that service-learning provides cheap labor to non-profit organizations and the community. On the other hand, it does not benefit the studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ participating. The Kellogg Foundation (1999) wrote, Ã¢â¬Å"Some do not see service-learning as having real
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Sometimes life can be a confusing series of people, emotions, and experiences, which can lead many to struggle with their purpose in this world. Therefore, many look to the philosophies and writings of ancient and modern philosophers in order to piece understanding into their lives. A very prevalent philosophy that had roots in early Christian and Buddhist writings, but exploded in Europe during the 1940Ã¢â¬â¢s and 1950Ã¢â¬â¢s, was Existentialism. The Existential movement focused on the ideas of individual freedom, absurdity, authenticity, individualism and alienation. This was both a movement of literary and philosophical greatness, with many writers expressing their philosophical beliefs through their literature. These writers believed that there was no greater purpose in a personÃ¢â¬â¢s life and that there was almost no point in existence. Moreover, these authors both valued authenticity and created a sort of absurdity to the society they lived in. Therefore, this struggle to grasp the meaning of life can be seen through an existential light in many novels with authors such as Camus. In CamusÃ¢â¬â¢s novel The Stranger, Camus explores the existential ideas of absurdity and authenticity through the actions and ideas of the main character Meursault. Existentialism is the main theme of CamusÃ¢â¬â¢s novel The Stranger, which relies heavily on absurdist ideas to assess the meaning of life. However to understand CamusÃ¢â¬â¢s meaning of life, one must understand the definition and traits of absurdity. ManyShow MoreRelatedExistentialism in Literature and Science846 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesobvious, but to further understand the meaning of existentialism, it must be analyzed through the impacts it has had on both literature and scientific theories alike. The literary movement of existentialism is seen heavily in Franz KafkaÃ¢â¬â¢s The Metamorphosis and Albert CamusÃ¢â¬â¢ The Stranger. In The Metamorphosis, the movement of his existentialism is gradual. Gregor Samsa, the protagonist, hates his job and he wishes to be free of all his social suffering. This is seen when he is transformed into aRead MoreA Concrete Human Existence, And The Conditions Of Such Existence1689 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesexistentialists, Jean-Paul Sartre, Albert Camus and Simone de Beauvoir. The heavily influenced post WWII movement spurred up a whole new way of thinking. Sartre made the movement popular in that he defined Ã¢â¬Å"ExistentialismÃ¢â¬ and wrote many works solely centered on his views. Simone de Beauvoir- An important existentialist who spent much of her life alongside Sartre, wrote about feminism, and existential ethics in her works. These included The Second Sex and The Ethics of Ambiguity. She shows how, at eachRead MoreExistentialism And The Beliefs Of The Movement1454 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesexistentialism and the beliefs of the movement. Existentialism was a turning point for society and literature that advocated the expansion of the minds of authors and their readers so we could improve our thinking to be more enlightened and free. The movement sparked much alternative thinking to allow our society to grow into what it is today and without it people would most likely be more close minded and less free. Existentialism was a very influential movement with many impactful authors and willRead MoreSpongebob Squarepants : Character Analysis1468 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesa grand message and warning about war. Bikini Bottom, referring to the Bikini Atoll, is the location American government tests atomic bombs and one of the many victims of warfare development. In the episode Ã¢â¬ËSB-129Ã¢â¬â¢, Stephen Hillenburg applies existential philosophies such as absurdity, the becoming, and isolation through SquidwardÃ¢â¬â¢s interactions with three different realms to represent the role humans play in warfare. Squidward is the opposite of SpongeBob in the show; he is constantly unhappyRead MoreMovie Review : The Virgin Suicides846 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesfilm was an overwhelming critical and art house success. Coppola made headlines again in 2003 when she debuted Lost In Translation, a film she both wrote and directed. With actor Bill Murray as her muse, the film tells the story of two Americans strangers. In 2004, Coppola won an Academy Award for Best Original Screenplay for the film. Sofia Coppola s next film wasn t as universally well received as the previous one. Coppola wrote, directed and produced the imaginative reinvention of Marie AntoinetteRead MoreAnalysis Of The Movie Madame Tutli Putli 1493 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesMadame Tutli-Putli is a 2007 stop motion animated short film by Montreal filmmakers Chris Lavis and Maciek Szczerbowski, collectively known as Clyde Hyde Productions. This stop motion animated film takes viewers on an elating existential adventure into the completely envisioned, material universe of our main character, Madame Tutli-Putli, as she ventures alone on a train weighed down with all her natural belongings and the phantoms of her past, she confronts both the consideration and threat of outsidersRead More Kosinskis Being There and the Existential Anti-Hero Essay example3188 Words Ã |Ã 13 PagesKosinskis Being There and the Existential Anti-Hero Ã Ã Ã Critics have referred to Kosinskis Being There as his worst novel.Ã Perhaps, Kosinskis prosaic style is deceptive in its apparent simplicity (especially when contrasted with The Painted Bird).Ã What Kosinski seeks to do, as Welch D. Everman relates, is to stimulate the readers recreative and imaginative task by offering only the essentials...Kosinskis style draws the reader into the incident by refusing to allow him to remainRead MoreExistentialism vs. Naturalism in Native Son1657 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesnaturalistic movement in philosophy and literature. The philosophical studies of human beings, existentialism and naturalism, share a vital amount of similarities. But the distinctions between the two must be emphasized in order to better comprehend which style Richard Wright employed. Upon dissecting the style, themes, plot, and characters in Native Son, it is clear that naturalism was the predominant philosophical approach. Existentialism has been defined as a philosophical movement or tendencyRead MoreThe Avant-Garde Characteristics of Samuel Becketts Play1409 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesdirection of the unknown, to use Wellmans dichotomy, and therefore should not involve any more than the minimum of props on stage. Another key avant-garde preoccupation Becketts Play has is its interrogation of the concept of individuality and existential freedom. In most traditional plays, actors play characters. These characters possess a particular set of relationships with other characters on stage and display various motivations for their actions as the work unfolds. However, the avant-gardeRead MoreReflect Like Human Beings, A Civilization Will Talk To1409 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesquestions--a conclusion that some say parallels, as well as parodies, human life. The roadside activities and discussions of the playÃ¢â¬â¢s characters seem the commonplace of human experienceÃ¢â¬âtalk, jokes, smells, food, strangers, even boots. By themselves, they offer no extraordinary meaning or existential fulfillment. The dialogue and events seem prosaic and random, disassociated from any overarching theme--except for one, the coming of Godot. From the beginning, the expectation of his arrival is the one and
The developed world takes it for granted but it is a luxury to many parts of the developing world. In developed countries, electricity is considered the backbone of the economy and it is generally agreed that providing access to electricity is a key element in the fight against poverty and an enabler of social and economic development. Why is then that an estimated 1. 6 billion people, a quarter of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s population, have no access to electricity? And in the absence of any new policies, it is estimated that by 2030, 1. 4 billion people will still lack access! The reason for this situation is complex and involves energy policies, technological, economical, and institutional aspects. Across the world, those with no access to modern energy are cooking on wood, dung and charcoal. The results of this, both physically and environmentally, are devastating. Providing power to the poor without destroying the planet has become one of the biggest challenges of modern times. We will write a custom essay sample on Rural Electrification or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page ABB has, in collaboration with UN organizations, governmental and non-governmental organizations (NGOs), industry partners and customers, taken on part of this challenge. Through its Access to Electricity initiative ABB is developing and implementing business models for the electrification and sustainable development of poor rural and semi-urban societies. The first result of this project can be seen in the remote village of Ngarambe just outside the Selous game reserve in southern Tanzania. Inaugurated in June 2004, the effect that the power system already has on this small community is truly amazing. It is hard for many of us to imagine what life would be like without electricity. Yet, in this day and age almost one-quarter of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s population knows exactly what life is like without modern energy. The harsh reality is that regions and communities without electricity are often areas that experience extreme poverty, limited freedom of choice and opportunities, high unemployment rates, insufficient health and education services, lack of basic infrastructure and an unsustainable use of the environment. It is generally agreed that providing access to electricity is a key element in fighting such problems. But for those living on less than US$ 2 a day, paying for the electricity desperately needed for cooking, heating, agriculture, lighting for education and pumps for clean water is a real problem. It then follows that women and children must spend hours each day collecting heating fuel, which in turn destroys tree cover. Indoor air pollution, due to smoke from cooking fires, causes many deaths every year, mostly in rural areas. Of the 1. 6 billion people around the world who do not have access to electricity, more than half a billion are in India and another half a billion live in sub-Saharan Africa. Poverty, abandoned energy policies and economics are largely to blame for these appalling figures. A vicious circleIn areas with poorly developed financial markets and low domestic savings, raising enough capital for power sector investments is difficult. There are other problems as well: * Exchange rate risks limit the inflow of external capital. * Rural electricity schemes are usually more costly to implement than urban or semi-urban schemes. * Often the technical standards issued by authorities in developing countries are similar to those in European or other developed countries. This then means that they are not adjusted to local conditions, thus leading to unnecessarily high electrification costs. Misdirected subsidy policies. * Tariffs that do not cover costs. * Non-payment. * Political interference. * The distortion of commercial incentives. | In many cases, the policy environment and institutional structure in decentralized rural settings is not conducive to private investment. As a result, demand greatly exceeds supply and the electrification rates remain extremely low in many developing countries. Electricity a key to developmentElectricity in the developed and many parts of the developing world has helped increase productivity and incomes as well as contributing enormously to local economic growth. Modern energy services not only free women and children from the time-consuming collection of traditional wood-fuel for cooking and heating, but it also reduces respiratory illnesses caused by the indoor air pollution from cooking fires. Electricity makes streets and neighborhoods safer for women after dark, and it extends learning time for children. The Access to Electricity initiativeHow does the world break the vicious circle of poverty without, at the same time, plundering the land and making the greenhouse effect worse? As a company, ABB recognizes that sustainable development and electrification go hand in hand. In fact, sustainability is at the heart of the groupÃ¢â¬â¢s business. ABB develops and participates in initiatives that help improve the situation of those communities in developing regions that are left on the margins of sustainable development efforts. One such initiative, known as Access to Electricity, is changing the way of life of one community in Southern Tanzania. Access to Electricity is an effort by ABB to develop and implement business models for the electrification of rural and semi-urban societies. Using its extensive commercial and technical expertise in electrical engineering, the company, in collaboration with: UN, governmental and non-governmental organizations; industry partners; specialists in infrastructure development (to achieve a sustainable rural transformation); and customers, aims at better meeting the needs of low-income populations in developing countries by providing a basis for economic growth and social development. As part of this overall aim, Access to Electricity focuses on the implementation of local, bottom-up and low cost electrification projects with particular emphasis on: * The productive use of electricity. * The establishment of sustainable power systems that can bear its own operating and maintenance costs. The Access to Electricity project is currently part of ABBÃ¢â¬â¢s Corporate Social Responsibility program. The project is conducted in close collaboration with ABBÃ¢â¬â¢s business units and it is a complementary approach to the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s proven and established business applications and offerings in developing countries. It strengthens ABBÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to meet the needs on low-income markets, and may become a substantial part of ABBÃ¢â¬â¢s regular business. Challenges facing rural electrification Technical Providing electricity to those in need, however, is not as easy as one might think. Certain technical challenges must first be overcome in these under developed areas including: * Adapting technical standards and technology to low electrical loads. * Adjusting to small and intermittent consumption patterns. Overcoming low affordability. The solution may therefore require simple and more robust technology with the ability to withstand severe climatic conditions, be resistant to vandalism and theft as well as being simple to operate and maintain. Costs can be cut, for instance, by designing one or two phase systems and by employing innovative metering systems. Rural electrification schemes often employ different technologies for different types of settlements in a particular region. Grid extensions or stand-alone mini grids, fuelled for example by diesel or mini/micro hydro, are the preferred methods for villages and larger communities. For small, isolated settlements with low power demands, photovoltaic installations could be employed. Other renewable energy technologies like wind and biomass could also be useful in specific off-grid applications. ABB offers a wide range of products and services for all kinds of applications in rural electrification. This includes grid extension with subtransmission and distribution systems, substations, materials and equipment, engineering and financing, erection, testing and commissioning. The company also provides a broad range of special low voltage products adapted for rural conditions including: * Load limiters that allow fixed tariff billing with limited consumption. * Miniature circuit breakers for pre-paid metering. * Antitheft systems. * Special enclosures to protect equipment in harsh environments. Local shops are staying open longer n Ngarambe thanks to the extra four hours of power provided daily by the generator. | Socio-economic aspects Another key element is the socio-economic analysis of what revenues can be generated from small and medium size industrial electrification projects and what capital and maintenance costs the operator can bear on a sustained basis, including investment subsidies and development assistance. Socio-economic studies among rural households, and especially rural enterprises, reveal a willingness to pay for access to electricity if it is reasonably reliable and 24-hour services were available. Rural power demand is initially very low, for example: less than 200 W for rural households; 2-4 kW for many small and medium sized enterprises and shops; 3-5 kW for health clinics and schools; and 5-20 kW for a maize-mill and water irrigation system. Looking further than just the pure electrification of a customer site, collaboration between NGOs and| development assistance organizations can also increase the socio-economic output of a project. Joint efforts involving the customerÃ¢â¬â¢s value chain and local society can help businesses to grow and become sustainable, resulting in social benefits for the entire community. Feasible projects include the supply of power (or strengthening of an existing power supply) to rural areas with growing industries such as tourism, mining, manufacturing and agriculture. Settlements and households in and around these areas may be connected at a low cost, thus helping to establish more enterprises and improve living conditions. This way, businesses can benefit from development assistance efforts, while development assistance efforts in a region may help lower the risk for new local business ventures. A focus on human rights In some of the least developed countries, the absence of sound governance systems at local and national level creates a difficult and insecure business environment. This and other difficulties, including ethnic conflicts and lack of democracy, account for some of the most serious obstructions to economic growth. With its strong commitment to good corporate citizenship and zero tolerance with non-compliance in business ethics, ABB is recognized as a strong partner in both stable and difficult environments. Within Access to Electricity, the group pays special attention to human rights issues by applying the experience and measures developed within the Business LeadersÃ¢â¬â¢ Initiative on Human Rights (BLIHR). The aim of BLIHR is to find practical ways of applying the aspirations of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights within a business context and to inspire other businesses to do likewise. Incidentally, ABB is one of the initiators of this three-year program. Project preparationsThe development activities in the area have contributed to stopping the unsustainable use of wildlife and other natural resources around the village. ABB is evaluating projects in Tanzania, Uganda and Senegal, as well as planning projects in India and North Africa. In Tanzania, ABB collaborates with the UNDP and other partners to develop a series of projects for poor people with clear benefits for the recipients and reasonable conditions for the participants. This collaboration is part of the UNÃ¢â¬â¢s Global Compact initiative known as Growing Sustainable Business in the Least Developed Countries which recommends that multinational companies play a greater role in the fight against poverty. In Uganda, ABB is investigating opportunities in the newly-started Energy for Rural Transformation program. This program is financed by the World Bank and aims to step up rural access to electricity from 1 % to 10 % in ten years. In Senegal, the rural electrification authority has launched a similar electrification program with support from the World Bank. ABB is collaborating with EDF and look for joint opportunities. Bringing light to the people of Ngarambe, TanzaniaAs a first result of the Access to Electricity project, ABB has electrified the remote village of Ngarambe just outside the Selous game reserve in Southern Tanzania. The village, with around 275 homesteads and a population of about 1,800 people, supports itself through hunting and subsistence farming. The Selous Game Reserve covers an area the size of Switzerland and was established over a period of 40 years during the first half of the twentieth century. The electrification project was carried out in partnership with the local community, the District Council and the global conservation organisation, WWF. The WWF is directly involved in development activities in the Selous Game Reserve and neighboring areas. The development activities in the area have contributed to stopping the unsustainable use of wildlife and other natural resources around the village. The communities have started small household income generating groups, which are environmentally friendly and less dependent on wildlife as a source of income. Access to electrical power in Ngarambe village increases productivity and enhances opportunities for employment and increased incomes. Access to electricity has certainly made a difference to the lives of children of Ngarambe. Time devoted to study and learning has been greatly extended. In addition, the village school can now stay open in the evening, permitting extra classes as well as giving the teacher more lesson preparation time. Health services have also improved. The village dispensary is open longer, allowing patients to be treated at night. It will soon be equipped with a refrigerator for the medicines, which will benefit the patients. Small businesses along the main road have also been boosted, staying open longer in the evening: A local shop now provides cold drinks and a teashop attracts more customers because there is no longer the smell of kerosene. The solutionThe power system was designed after an assessment of available energy resources and consultations with the community and the District Council. In the first phase of the project, important buildings such as the school, the dispensary, the village government office and the mosque, were all prioritized to receive electricity. In addition, it was also decided to prioritize electrification of productive units, such as the market place, the business center and retail shops, because these can afford to pay for the electrical power. Underground power lines have been laid so as not to disturb the wildlife in the area and electrical sockets have been installed in newly rebuilt brick walls. Power is supplied from a modern diesel generator, where retrofitted spark arrestors clean out emissions. The generator is equipped with a double skinned fuel tank and fuel leak detection system. Charging of costs is based on low-cost current limiters with an automatic reset and a fixed tariff system that allows easy collection of fees and encourages efficient use of energy. Two generator attendants from the village have been trained to operate and maintain the system. An expansion of the project is being prepared, under which more houses will be connected to the grid. Wind measurements are being made in preparation for a planned windmill installation to supply Ngarambe and a neighboring village with renewable energy. This will reduce the dependence on diesel and turn the present generators into back-up power. The village government, the District Council and WWF will monitor and analyze the response of the local community now that they have access to electricity before embarking on a larger renewable project. WWF as a knowledge baseIn general, the chances of success of a rural electrification project increase significantly if there is a certain level of development in the area and other development efforts are being made. With this in mind, the knowledge and experience of WWF was crucial to the success of the project in Ngarambe. Over many years, WWF has built up strong relations with the local communities and conducted development projects with the villagers and governmental institutions. ABB and WWF are scaling up their collaboration and aim to provide electricity to some ten other rural villages around the Selous Game Reserve. ABB is carrying out inventories of the electricity needs and available energy resources in these villages. This work is being done in close collaboration with the villagers, the local government and other stakeholders to ensure local ownership, commitment and appropriate technical solutions. ConclusionThe goal of reducing extreme poverty and hunger is a huge and complex challenge to the global community. Efforts are needed from many sectors of society both in the developing and in the developed world. Access to electricity is an important key to economic and social development and a vital component in reducing global poverty. In the Access to Electricity project, ABB takes on this challenge by contributing its technical and commercial expertise to develop and implement business models that facilitate electrification of low-income populations in developing countries. The public and private sectors need to establish a long-term collaboration to reduce risks and attract capital for investments in rural electrification. This is central in achieving a substantial scale-up of electrification in developing countries.
Monday, April 20, 2020
The campaign planning is the joint effort of both the advertiser and his ad Agency. The advertiser supplies much information about the product, the channel of distribution, competition the product, and the firm. The agency may collect other information from the market, in respect of target audience etc. Advertising campaign planning simply means planning the advertising campaign. Advertising campaign planning concerns many people in the advertising agency, but mainly concerns the advertising manager (for the client), account executive, marketing manager, creative director, media planner, and PR manager. They design and plan advertising campaign for the client. Steps in Advertising Campaign Planning : The main steps in advertising campaign planning are as follows : 1. Prototype Stage : Let us assume that a manufacturer has the prototype of a new product. The basic product has been thoroughly tested, but the packaging has not been determined, it has no name, no price, and perhaps no defined market. We will write a custom essay sample on Process Of Planning The Advertising Campaign or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page In some respects this seems to contradict modern marketing principles. This situation is not uncommon. The company now wish to advertise its new product and appoints an advertising agency and calls it to explore the possibilities to promote the sales. 2. Initial Briefing by Client : The most likely procedure is for the managing director to ask his advertising manager to fix up a meeting with the account executive of the advertising agency. This first meeting may be held at the factory, at the company? s head office, or at the advertising agency. Probably the best venue will be where the account executive can see the product and meet the people who have been involved in its development. The factory might be the best place, but much depends on how the company is organized. For this initial discussion, the right choice of venue can be important to the account executive? s clear understanding of the proposition. It can be dangerous for the advertising agency to start off on the wrong foot because of inadequate or faulty interpretation of policy and problems. The need then is for best possible understanding at the beginning. This is the joint responsibility of the advertising manager and the account executive. Contact Report : Whenever a meeting has been held with a client a contact report should be written at once and circulated to all those present at the meeting, with additional copies for others not in attendance who should be informed, both inside the company and inside the agency. The importance of a contact report lies in its confirmation of agreed action, so that nothing depends on people? s memories, and if it is submitted directly after the event it serves to remind of necessary action that must be taken by people present at the meeting. Agreed contact reports, when placed in a file or binder as instructions to proceed, may be referred to as the facts book. Should a dispute occur, reference can be made to the respective contact report: at the end of the year these reports from the basis of a report to the client on the year? s work. 4. Account Executive? s Report to Agency Management : The account executive will also give his superiors the account director and perhaps the agency managing director a verbal report. If new business is coming into the agency it may be necessary to make changes in the deployment of staff, engage extra staff, and consider the use or expansion of equipment and premises. 5. Account Executive? s Briefing to Agency Department Heads : The account executive now writes up a detailed, factual but as far as possible unbiased report on the assignment, setting out his understanding of the product and the client? s requirements. In this report he should try to avoid expressing any personal observations because the object is to inform others whose ideas and opinions are being sought. Each department head is asked to study the report and to attend a plans board meeting. 6. Proposition : At this stage, the account executive invites the managing director of the client company to attend a meeting at which the scheme is presented in report form with a presentation of ideas in rough visual form. At this meeting the client party may consist of the managing director, marketing manager, sales manager and advertising manager and the members of the agency party may include the account director, account executive and the marketing director. Once the scheme is approved and adopted in principle the agency will be instructed to prepare a full visual presentation at the client? s expense. Now, the agency will engage in actual copywriting, photography and drawing. Detailed media scheduling will now be done by the media buyer. 7. Presentation to Client : At this stage the complete campaign is demonstrated to the client. The campaign is presented visually. Advertising campaign planning must be flexible. Moreover, at such a meeting with the client there will be a number of company directors andÃ executives present who disagree with one another as well as with the agency over what makes an advertising campaign. Everyone likes to argue about advertising! The account executive, supported by the advertising manager in deal circumstances, must sell his campaign on the basis of sales and readership figures of publications, show the results of copy testing, and offer alternative media plans with evidence of the reasoning behind them. Much of the comment and criticism from the client side will often represent arguments which were considered and rejected in the agency much earlier. This has to be expected, accepted courteously and gently dismissed by means by persuasive reasoning and statistics which reveal that the agency has really taken pains to produce not just a clever scheme but one based on businesslike thinking. Once the scheme has been approved, the account executive and his companions will return to the agency, ready to execute the campaign. At this stage when the media start buyers, creative staff, print buying production and traffic takeover, working under the direction of the account executive. 11. 2. 3 Factors Influencing the Planning of an Advertising Campaign. The Organisation its reputation, position in the market. 2. The product e. g. Consumer (Perishable, durable or speciality) goods, or industrial goods etc. 3. The market the nature of customers, their income, their buying behavior, and their location. 4. The competition. 5. The absolute price of the product, Competitor? s price etc. 6. The channels of distribution. 7. The budget, the advertising theme, etc. 8. The media, the advertising schedule etc. 9. The Govt. regulations and controls, restriction on certain products, restriction on certain media to carry out certain ads.
Sunday, March 15, 2020
List of the 12 Seas Surrounding the Pacific Ocean The Pacific Ocean is the largest of the worlds five oceans. It has a total area of 60.06 million square miles (155.557 million sq km) and it stretches from the Arctic Ocean in the north to the Southern Ocean in the south and has coastlines along the continents of Asia, Australia, North America, and South America. In addition, some areas of the Pacific Ocean feed into what is called a marginal sea instead of pushing right up against the coastlines of the aforementioned continents. By definition, a marginal sea is an area of water that is a partially enclosed sea adjacent to or widely open to the open ocean. Confusingly a marginal sea is also sometimes referred to as a Mediterranean sea, which shouldnt be confused with the actual sea named the Mediterranean.Ã Marginal Seas of the Pacific Ocean The Pacific Ocean shares its borders with 12 different marginal seas. The following is a list of those seas arranged by area.Ã Philippine Sea Area: 2,000,000 square miles (5,180,000 sq km) Coral Sea Area: 1,850,000 square miles (4,791,500 sq km) The South China Sea Area: 1,350,000 square miles (3,496,500 sq km) Tasman Sea Area: 900,000 square miles (2,331,000 sq km) Bering Sea Area: 878,000 square miles (2,274,020 sq km) The East China Sea Area: 750,000 square miles (1,942,500 sq km) The Sea of Okhotsk Area: 611,000 square miles (1,582,490 sq km) The Sea of Japan Area: 377,600 square miles (977,984 sq km) Yellow Sea Area: 146,000 square miles (378,140 sq km) Celebes Sea Area: 110,000 square miles (284,900 sq km) Sulu Sea Area: 100,000 square miles (259,000 sq km) The Sea of ChiloÃ © Area: Unknown The Great Barrier Reef The Coral Sea located in the Pacific Ocean is home to one of natures greatest wonders, the Great Barrier Reef. It is the world largest coral reef system which is made up of almost 3,000 individual corals. Off the coast of Australia, the Great Barrier Reef is one of the nations most popular tourist destinations. For the Aboriginal population of Australia, the reef is culturally and spiritually important. The reef is home to 400 types of coral animals and over 2,000 species of fish. Much of the marine life that calls the reef home, like sea turtles and several whale species.Ã Unfortunately, climate change is killing the Great Barrier Reef. Rising ocean temperatures cause coral to releaseÃ the algae that not only live in it but is the main source of food for the coral. Without its algae, the coral is still alive but is slowly starving to death. This release of algae is known as coral bleaching. By 2016 over 90 percent of the Reef had suffered from coral bleaching and 20 percent of the coral had died. As even humans depend upon coral reef ecosystems for food the loss of the world largest coral reef system would have devastating effects on the plant. ScientistsÃ hope they can stem the tide of climate change and preserve natural wonders like coral reefs.
Friday, February 28, 2020
Gestalt in Counseling and Therapy - Article Example It is evidently clear from the discussion that officially originated by Max Wertheimer and his two students Wolfgang KÃ ¶hler and Kurt Koffka, Ã¢â¬Å"gestalt is a German word, which means organized whole, form, shape and pattern. There is a basic premise that the organized whole is greater than the sum of its partsÃ¢â¬ . Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦ It accentuates concepts like emergent properties, holism, and contextÃ¢â¬ as applied in its several varied Ã¢â¬Å"organizing principles called gestalt lawsÃ¢â¬ . The fundamental of which is the law of prÃ ¤gnanz that says: Ã¢â¬Å"we are innately driven to experience things in as good a gestalt as possible, [where] Ã¢â¬ËgoodÃ¢â¬â¢ can mean many thingsÃ¢â¬ ¦ such as, regular, orderly, simplicity, symmetry, and so on, which they refer to specific gestalt lawsÃ¢â¬ . Most common of which is the law of proximity, where Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦ elements tend to be grouped together depending on their closenessÃ¢â¬ ; the law of similarity, where Ã¢â¬Å" elements will be grouped perceptually if they are similar to each otherÃ¢â¬ ; the law of symmetry, where Ã¢â¬Å"symmetrical areas tend to be seen as figures against asymmetrical backgrounds"; the law of closure, where Ã¢â¬Å"items are grouped together if they tend to complete a patternÃ¢â¬ ; and the law of continuation where Ã¢â¬Å"the eye is compelled to move through one object and continue to another objectÃ¢â¬ . But, most of all, Ã¢â¬Å"gestalt theory is well known for its concept of insightful learning [as shown in] solving a problem by means of the recognition of a gestalt or organizing principlesÃ¢â¬ .
Wednesday, February 12, 2020
Database Systems Concepts - Essay Example One of the principles of cryptography is double-blind design: Make it so as few people as possible have access to both key and lock. In this case, the solution is to have the administrator encrypt the passwords as well as improve security through mechanisms like further password-encrypting the password folder, making the password folder a hidden folder and providing no information as to find it, having user logs, etc. The best and simplest way is to encrypt the passwords in the first place. When a user enters a password, it is turned into dots or *****. This is to prevent onlookers from seeing it. But it is possible for that process to occur and for the password to still be saved in plain text elsewhere. When one signs up for a forum, it is quite often that one's plain text password is sent to the person in an e-mail. This would mean that any trojan that could read e-mails could easily acquire the person's password for a site. Solving that problem is certainly slightly stickier, but when it comes to an OS, it's very easy. When the password is signed in, it is encrypted locally. This encryption needs to be chosen by the administrator. Only administration has access to the encryption algorithm, so only the administrator can log onto a computer and find passwords. That way, if a breach does occur and someone does find the password folder, they see gibberish. Ideally, user names should be encoded as well. What about password retrieval? Use password hint services. Upon signing up for the password, the user also creates some unique security questions. These should be unique enough so as to avoid potential social engineering approaches: The classic Ã¢â¬Å"What is your mother's maiden nameÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"Who was your first petÃ¢â¬ can be risky. The best approach is to let the user type in their own question then answer it. However, this program will have to make sure that the password is not in the text at all, else people give themselves backdoors which can compr omise security. If this fails, then administration can log people in and recall passwords. Other basic security tricks can solve this problem, however. The password folder should always be hidden and password-protected itself by a password known only to the admin. This means that even if someone had a key to the encryption for the passwords, they still couldn't access the password list. And they would find it difficult to locate the password folder in the first place. Similarly, user logs of who logs in and out at various times is a deterrent to this activity. If only legitimate users can log on, then it is easy to find who did it and pursue disciplinary action. The problem comes when a password is stolen from one person by another employee or someone else with access to the company, but at the least, it starts the investigation appropriately. However, it is important to bear in mind that in the modern era it's rarely someone breaking into an office and stealing passwords, or even s ome intrepid employee doing so. Rather, the most likely risk are keyloggers, trojans and malware that seek out the information. Again, if the information is sufficiently encrypted, there is no problem; however, this means that the key should only be stored locally on the administrator computer, if it is stored locally at all (I would suggest keeping it in a CD-ROM). This means that proper anti-spyware programs and hygiene are key to avoid password theft problems. Ideally, administrators would sharply control what can be run and what can't be run. When